It just so happened, that the main difficulties in the winter gives motorists battery. And usually,, year after year, sound the same vital questions ... We decided to bring all the most are popular storage problems in a "blitz-marathon"!
1. Battery self-discharge - what is it?
Occasional penlight batteries can be stored for years without hindrance, until they begin to use. But with the car battery this trick does not pass! And sacramental "Removing the negative terminal" will not help! Leaving the car in the parking lot and leaving on vacation for a month, returning, you can not be able to start the engine ... Many of those, who used to, that the notebook is switched off or the smartphone may lie for months without sacrificing battery, unpleasantly surprised ...
Removing the plug from the battery, we are "cut off" external current users, But do not stop the natural process of internal self-discharge, a typical lead acid battery and hardly typical lithium. Imagine, that parallel to the inside the battery terminals is constantly connected to a tiny parasitic current sink. Self-discharge rate of all manufacturers consider, if on the day of the new battery loses no more 0,5-0,8% capacity. This applies to temperatures above zero — Winter also in this case is very rare example of ally, not the enemy: at temperatures below zero self-discharge slowing! But in the summer, even disconnected from the car battery for a month bortseti able to lose half capacity, and have worked (despite the fact that it is serviceable!) It can dry out almost completely - for her 1,5-2% loss per day is the norm. Therefore, in the extended period of time the machine is necessary before removing the terminal fully charge the battery mains charger. And even better - throw the battery in the constant feed charger, with special compensation self-discharge mode. This mode of operation in the annotation to the charger is often called the "buffer" or "compensatory" — when it is constantly fed by battery safe ultra low current of several milliamperes 10 s without the risk of evaporation of water from the electrolyte or overheating.
2. How many days you can not start the car?
Is it possible to fly relaxed, eg, в отпуск, leaving the car in the parking lot without taking some "conservation" measures? Just park and go, and two weeks back, start the engine and drive? Basically, you can make an easy arithmetic calculation.
If we imagine, that the electrical machine is working and does not consume any current at normal, there remains two main "parasite", who are the majority - alarm and audio system, "Radio" in common parlance. Average consumption of the pair - about 30 mA signaling and about 20 mA - on "radio".
— It is necessary to measure the consumption of a car in idle mode from the current BATTERY - says head of the laboratory battery FSUE "Scientific Research and Experimental Institute of Electronics and Electrical cars» Alexander Kazunin.
— idea, you have turned 50 milliampere. We consider: 50 mA current = 0,05 BUT·h flow rate. Umnozhaem of 24 hours a day and on, let us say, 14 days - comes almost 17 ampere-hour battery loses two weeks, and this, note, excluding self-discharge… Battery capacity 55 BUT·h this is the third part of the container. But the main question - how to interpret these numbers? If the summer outdoors, car at the technical level is OK, and the battery was charged at 100% — the loss of one third of the vessel does not hurt to start the engine and drive. If the street winter, and the machine is operated in a city mode with endless negative energy balance, when the battery is permanently charged no more than three-quarters (in the best case,!), the picture is disappointing. After two weeks of inactivity alarm, "Music" and the self-discharge will not be allowed to start the engine.
3. Can I charge the battery, without disconnecting it from the machine?
You put the car in the garage and decided to charge the battery. Do I need to disconnect the battery before it by bortseti machines, taking with him one of the terminals?
Virtually any charger gives exactly the same voltage (or slightly higher), as regular vehicle generator, and no harm is the voltage of the car electronics will not cause. Especially, that it is its own weight (including most importantly - control units engine and transmission) completely severed from bortseti removed the key and the ignition turned off the main relay. In other words, after the ignition is switched off in good charger can be connected to the battery, standing under the hood, without removing the wire from the last.
However, keyword - "serviceable" ... The fact, that all modern chargers are built on transformerless power sources — of so-called inverters. Their peculiarity is that, that in fact any malfunction in the charger at its terminals a voltage disappears. Yes, battery, naturally, in this case, may not be charged, but also car electronics will not be affected. But many chargers issue of old age, park which among motorists is still very high, built on the transformer circuit. they are massive, heavier, stronger, but often are inside the current sources with voltage 18-25 volt, which transistor or thyristor regulators lowered to desired during charging 14-16 volt. And if the regulator transistor breaks, that happens to him often, appears at the output of the charger high voltage 18-25 volt, capable of destroying and battery, and those electronic modules, which are not de-energize key is removed — full-time or supernumerary security systems, eg, a row of blocks, relating to the comfort and service. The charger is often no protection from such PP, because the application of the old school of chargers with the terminal of the battery is still useful to shoot.
4. Whether flat explode from charging BATTERY?
There is an opinion, that charge the battery at home - it is dangerous. Really, explosion risk carries catching when charging hydrogen - into a compound with oxygen, it forms the so-called detonating gas. But for an explosive concentration of hydrogen should be at least 4% the volume of air in the room. Even a slight battery room to stand on the charge a few days, to having this concentration, and the room should be sealed, in apartments criteria, Luckily, unattainable ... There is also another important nuance: in fact, during the charging of hydrogen component from the total gases, allocated battery, small — least 10%. Basically, the battery generates hydrogen in the first clock after charging, rather than during it. You can verify this, eg, with the help of the Russian edition of "Ventilation and heating battery rooms", where the issue of gas evolution of lead-acid batteries is considered particularly.
In other words, known strict and difficult to comply with the requirements of explosion- and fire safety are accumulator sections at enterprises, where all day is to simultaneously charge a plurality of batteries. Distribute these requirements on a one-time seasonal recharged own car battery flat when open window or even more so on the balcony is not necessary.
5. Is it possible to get poisoned by charging BATTERY home?
Besides hydrogen from the battery during charging stand and other gases, very toxic — eg, sulfur. but, again the, if it is not a constant, and the mass charge, and raze-another for the winter season, the amount of these gases can cause only a headache - and then only if the match so many factors. In fact, to feel at least some discomfort is very difficult from the process.
Yes, intentionally charge the battery near the head of a baby crib just not worth it anyway! But if for some reason you are unable to attach the battery to charge somewhere besides a corridor or hallway usual city apartment, nothing seriously unsafe and irreversible health will not happen. pretty, If interior doors are ajar, and despite the fact that least one window or pane will open in the apartment - for example, on the kitchen.
It is worth noting, that more harm (true, not health, and property) They have the ability to bring the smallest pair of sulfuric acid, which are able to de minimis amount imposed outside of the battery cans with withdrawing at "boiling" gases. In a small radius around the battery they are capable of destroying the fabric, floor or carpet from a natural material. The danger is not to say that all that is essential, but, to insure probably, should put rechargeable battery in a plastic garbage bag — not tying, obviously, his neck.
6. Why winter you need to recharge the battery outside the car?
Not a secret, that the periodic short trips such as "home-work-shop" generator does not manage to make up for the loss of battery power,, which spends starter, and the battery loses capacity uniformly even at absolutely perfect electrical equipment. However, in the summer there is the battery despite the fact that the opportunity to reach for the long trip to hundred percent charge. A winter itself is not possible, in principle, — even if you once a day to ride from Moscow to St. Petersburg and back, the battery will not be able to charge higher 70-80% from rated capacity due to slowing rate of chemical processes at temperatures below zero. In the bitter cold battery, standing on car, never charged in the 100%. He may not be charged in an unheated garage from a stationary charger, if the street strong frost.
To ensure filling of battery power must be transferred into a warm room, and then charged to the 100% AC charger. Carrying out this procedure, despite the fact that to 1-2 times over the winter is guaranteed will warn difficulties with cold starting the engine - if the battery and electrical equipment functioning properly, of course!
7. Frost changes the capacity of the battery?
Almost always, the problems with the launch of the winter - the car owner wine. Do not recharge the battery back to normal before the cool season, ignored electrical fault and the leakage current, He made a full charge BATTERY "zero" before, and so on. However, sometimes it regularly, freshest battery, and the starter turns sluggish! Why?
The fact, that the capacity BATTERY - unstable parameter. It very much depends on the ambient temperature. The cold tank ACCUM naturally reduced due to deceleration of chemical processes. About the dependence of capacitance on temperature can be visualized as:
|Battery Electrolyte temperature, WITH||Capacity, % of the nominal value|
Simply put, if the vehicle manufacturer saved on the battery, not put "option for RF" with increased just in this case the starting current and the capacitance, the "polbatarei", in which the battery is converted at minus 25-30, simply can not suffice for a measured start. Especially if the battery systematically nedozaryazhaetsya in urban vehicle operating mode with frequent starts and the duration of travel of small.
8. The safe Booster?
If the battery is discharged to zero - e.g., Neglected included dimensions, audio or room lamps lighting — Electrolyte density damn falls, and the electrolyte freezes, like ordinary water. freezing, it expands, deforming the plate and the housing sides fanning. What happens after the "Booster" that of the battery cables or portable lithium-ion "puskachom"?
— In the summer of "lighting a" threat can not be held, - says Alexander Kazunin.
— But in the winter - a completely different story ... If a discharged battery and bring home frozen, within half a day to warm at room temperature and then put on a charger charging network - it still will work. But so many who do not ... In general, the car "get a light," and here leave, because rushing to work or on business. What happens in this case,? Battery begins charging by the generator rather large current. But inside it two thirds the volume of the electrolyte - the ice. Almost a third of the battery is only. From the huge charge and start currents sintered separators, and they begin to germinate shunts - conductive jumper from dendrites, plates which close together. Most often suffer first and six banks, because they are on the edges, vymerzanie and begins with them. After such abuse battery almost never holds the charge and requested a replacement. Lighting a morning car, which shines on the dashboard lights after turning the key, and the starter which made no sound, необходимо помнить, that the battery is no longer a tenant, and in the evening it is highly desirable to call the store for a new!
9. Do I need a "coat" BATTERY?
many beheld, the battery under the hood wrapped in textile upholstered cover-box, nazыvaemuyu teplozaschytoy, termozashtitoy, "Termokeysom" and so on. On some machines such accessory nominally comes from the factory, on the other it is not in sight, and foreign manufacturers produce such things as elements of "tuning".
Vserasprostraneno opinion, Such termochehly help better battery charged by a generator in the winter and more efficient to give current starter. But, как досадно бы это не звучало, it's confusing ... For the winter like "coat" absolutely useless - for a night or a day of downtime in the parking lot no matter which battery is chilled to ambient temperature - even a mink coat on it Pull! The main objective of this thermal protection - partly cover the battery from overheating in the engine compartment hellish inferno of summer, To reduce the evaporation of water from the electrolyte, which suffer from any battery, whether they are at least three times "maintenance-free".
However, in any case can not be called a necessary accessory, and get it yourself, if the manufacturer has done without him, it is not necessary.
10. Is it necessary to apply protective grease to the battery terminals?
battery positive terminal is inclined heavily oxidized, often covered with creepy-looking blue-green rind. Oxides and begin to seep in the contact plane, it rapidly deteriorating. Now special protective lubricant sold to prevent this evil, but they are due to the specifics very expensive, and rarely in demand and in a pitiful amount. And there is a nuance - of clean and unde terminal with intact tightening bolt an additional "chemical doping" in the plane of contact with the tip BATTERY, by and large, and is not required. And when the terminal is already "killed" by oxidation and scratches, even valuable special means will not help her to restore a high-quality contact without voltopoter - in an amicable, terminal should be changed or at least carefully restore with the introduction of file and sandpaper.
But in "grandfather Times" there was a simple way to protect the terminals from oxidation, now almost forgotten. It is not bad to prevent deterioration of the future terminal, while it is still new — especially since the venture cost tends to zero, and simplicity — emergency. To prevent oxidation of the terminal on the "plus" battery contact in previous years experienced drivers put on a flat ring made of thick fabric or felt, which was applied 2-3 drops of engine oil — and on top of the ring already put and clamped wire terminal. Butter, giving a slight evaporation from the heat of the engine compartment space, "Wraps" the battery contacts and the plug wires typical anticorrosive, not allowing it to oxidize.
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