The process of developing a languid wheel drive all-terrain army truck chassis on VMS, Unlike Gorky Automobile Plant, I took a different turn, at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, several samples of finished-wheeled all-terrain already could not do better transport support of the Red Army.
In Moscow, the main obstacle to the rapid introduction of promising vehicles was "a mighty colossus scientific" NATI (Scientific autotractor institute), where pundits have long and tedious to settle disputes between the supporters of outdated half-track machines and fundamentally new all-wheel drive, work which once held illegally.
|1-Soviet first triaxial terrain truck NATI K-1 on the chassis ZIS-6. 1937 year|
Seasoned all-wheel drive cars NATI
1-the first phase of army vehicles with all-wheel drive based on the experience of past works NATI and collaboration with the Metropolitan Automobile, where on the basis of conventional trucks ZIS-5 and ZIS-6 was developed, built and tested three pilot strengths rover 73 K-1 and K-2. They supplied virtually all family units, including engines and tires, and from mass-produced cars differ only in the installation stage transfer box and the front driving and steering axles with imported joints of equal angular velocities.
|Tests on the rise, his four car K-1 on the ground NATI. 1937 year|
Despite the strong opposition, in 1937 there was the first and only example of K-1 (6×6), made under the leadership of A. n. Ostrovtseva chassis ZIS-6 and became the first triaxial Russian army truck wheel drive. Front wheel drive, steered and was designed bridge with split casing and the main gear of the lorry. Equipped weight of the car was 4,5 tons, speed on the highway - 58 kmh. After the test, the military, accustomed to the more conventional technique, We abandoned the car, and its subsequent development had to be frozen.
|Front-wheel drive with the drive axle and joints Rzeppa||Winter car tests K-1 at the site NATI|
2-second option K-2 (4×4), built in 1939 year 2-copies, considered the first Soviet "heavy" two-axle all-wheel drive military truck. Test samples of K-2 and K-2bis differed different main gears rear axles of VMS and VMS-5-6 - respectively with the gear ratios and modified worm.
|1-first experienced two-axle all-wheel drive truck NATI K-2 chassis ZIS-5. 1939 year|
|Truck K-2 and plitsevymi garter means skid structure NATI|
Front drive axles base machine K-2 received detachable casings from ZIS-5, the main transmission from the GAZ-MM and South American joints Rzeppa. A more sophisticated version K-2bis had Bride front track, increased height and secure the hubs of the front wheels on the three bolts instead 6 model K-2. The curb weight of both vehicles was 480 kg above, than those of serial ZIS-5, but it fits into the limit 3,6 tons.
|Vehicle Tests K-2 with removable devices increase patency|
|K-2 all-terrain vehicle with front plitsevymi chains at the site NATI. December 1939 of the year|
After the test, the trucks passed the Metropolitan car factory, where they were finalized and renamed the ZIS-32. Meanwhile NATI designers have engaged in the creation of all-wheel drive armored vehicles.
|1-nd Soviet-wheel drive armored vehicle BA-NATI double-axle special chassis. 1939 year|
In September of 1939, Vyksa plant DRO was assembled first Soviet light armored four-wheel drive Result (4×4) with rear wheels gabled, made on its own initiative under the leadership of engineer H. AND. Korotonoşko. The documentation NATI he had the index BA-8, then I got a catchy name LB-NATI ("Beria"). Its base is the shortened chassis of GAZ-MM with a Dodge engine in 72 the strength and the latest "razdatkoy". Rear axle borrowed from GAZ-AAA, kardanы - ZIS-101, front axle with joints Rzeppa - from passenger car GAZ-61. Welded housing was equipped with turret with twin machine guns.
|Tower bronevyk BA-nati (LB-NATI) with 72 horsepower engine and 3 guns|
|Battle all-wheel drive car with front drive axle and joints Rzeppa|
According to the results of LB NATI test provides the highest permeability, but it was too heavy (4,6 tons), and bulletproof tires quickly destroyed at high speed. He was recommended to the revision with the introduction of improved GAZ-62, in which a couple of years was born an extraordinary four-wheel drive armored LB-62.
ZIS-32 - a rare pre-war truck all-terrain vehicle
Army 2.5 ton ZIS-32 (4×4) He was listed as the only pre-war Soviet-wheel-drive truck series production. It was developed under the leadership of chief designer of the highest off-road vehicles and the head of the special department B. M. Fittermana. The basis of the machine is an experienced option NATI K-2, that when setting the creation was to modernize and unify. By radically decision concerns the vague hope for the purchase of machine tools in the United States, production technology and the development of its own production Rzeppa hinges.
In September 1940, modified in comparison was presented with K-2 Car ZIS-32. Its front drive was used continuous rear axle with the gear of the main transmission and trehtonki hinges Rzeppa. The design came out of a massive and rather heavy, It is resulting in increased weight of the machine and reduce the traction properties.
|Modified truck ZIS-32 vysokobortnym body and side boxes for spare parts|
VMS-32 adjusted to ordinary 73-horsepower engine ZIS-5 (commissioned by the military - ZIS-16 capacity of 85-88 hp), latest "razdatku", different bodywork and wheels with unique anti-skid means, additional lights svetomaskirovochnye, tow hooks and rack for guns in the cockpit. Compared with the ZIS-5, curb weight has increased to 3,7 tons (on 600 kg), the highest rate was 65 kmh.
After modernization prototypes NATI K-2bis a track of a narrow and more sophisticated and expensive joints Spicer ("Spice") with prickly bearings appeared pilot truck ZIS-32S, who did not go to the creation of. The "normal" machine hinges Rzeppa ("Rtseppa") renamed the ZIS-32P.
|Variant ZIS-32C with chetyrehdosochnym body and three-bolt fastening the front wheels. 1940 year|
|Front view of the truck ZIS-32R with joints of equal angular velocities Rzeppa||View in front of the car ZIS-32S with narrowing of a track of the front and hinges Spicer|
Despite the weighted, the first "fully Soviet" all-terrain vehicle ZIS-32 was recommended for serial production, which is planned to be deployed in October 1940 and the following year to release four thousand cars. Adjusted plan to solve this prepyadstviya postponed for August 1941, that would finalize the car and make a loop of different versions.
|Prewar ZIS-32 pyatidosochnym body and svetomaskirovochnymi lanterns. 1941 year|
|ZIS-32 low-army body and small lanterns svetomaskirovochnymi. Summer 1941 of the year|
Personal assembly of cars with different bodies and rear tool box began almost on the eve of the war and continued until the evacuation of the plant in October 1941. There were hand-harvested 197 machines, that in any way can not be considered vsepolnotsennym serial production. At the front they were used mainly as artillery tractors and chassis for light guns.
|ZIS-32 with 37 mm anti-aircraft gun 61K, collected in 2-copies. July 1941 of the year|
In the autumn of 1940 the development of a test model of US K-1 were two three-axle towing vehicle ZIS-36 (6x6) chassis serial ZIS-6. The first car equipped with 85-horsepower engine from the bus ZIS-16, second - experienced a six-cylinder diesel engine D-7 power 97,5 HP. Both options supplied with the back of the cart main double gear-type transmissions, and on the frontal bridge and "razdatke" it was unified with the ZIS-32.
|Experimental all-wheel drive three-axle truck ZIS-36. 1940 year|
After successful tests in the winter of 1940-1941, the ZIS-36 recommended for production, but failed to hold its output before the war. one chassis spring sent to the Izhora factory for assembly of the armored corps, but the end of this work is also interrupted by the war. With the statement on the creation of half-track car ZIS-42 continuation of the ZIS-36 was inappropriate.
|Winter tests triaxial ZIS-36 artillery limber. 1941 year|
|A car-truck-VMS 36 when towing a 122-mm M-30 howitzer reference 1938 year from limber|
Seasoned development wartime
War and the evacuation of the Metropolitan Automobile confused plans for a new generation of trucks to replace the legendary trehtonki, but under the influence of pouring into the country of foreign vehicles flow in first place out of the work on the creation of promising post-war RWD truck ZIS-150 and future military car ZIS-151 (6x6).
From the end 1943 It had been collected a few "model sample" cars ZIS-150 with units from incomplete pre-war family ZIS-15. 1-s truck got a flat lattice grille to its design, the next appearance did not differ from its lend-lease twin International KR11. Their respective part were svetomaskirovochnye lights, predetermined the mostly military uses these machines.
|1-th sample militarized ZIS-150 lamps with svetomaskirovochnymi. the end 1943 of the year|
|2-th prototype typical truck ZIS-front lining 150. Start 1944 of the year|
In November 1944, on the initiative at the plant first layout ZIS-150 was created by the military four-wheel drive layout ZIS-150P (4h4) with the rear dual wheels and weld the protective grille and headlamp, which including the development of the pre-war design ZIS-24. It established the imported Front Axle, transfer case and tire lugs with "herringbone". The package includes an awning over the loading platform with benches, two fuel tanks and two spare wheels.
|Experienced all-wheel drive truck ZIS-150P with imported units. Autumn 1944 of the year|
Compared with conventional trucks ZIS-150P weight increased by a ton, and the military lost interest in him. By the time the Ministry of Defense, the prevailing trend in the three-axle cars of the American army of the sample, which was the personification of all-wheel drive ZIS-151.
На заглавной фото — Демонстрация экспериментального полноприводного грузовика НАТИ К-2 с различными средствами противоскольжения
В статье применены только аутентичные иллюстрации.