The T-80 is especially almost everything: gas-diesel engine, fuel consumption, speed, the absence of a rigid mechanical connection between the engine and leading rollers and distress .... The most difficult task in the T-80 turned out to get to the place of the driver, but unintentionally stall here is simply impossible. This, too, especially. And that, the first notable "combat" experience, these tanks are received only during the shelling of the building of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation with MPs inside, also interesting.
So there spoke, but the tank — it's only cannon on wheels. Potochnee, on tracks. Yes, this gun hung with armor and other protective equipment, It can fire on the move, protect crew, it is taught to "see" at night, and other interesting things. But her task alone: destroy as many other such guns, and people can be inside them.
Therefore, each new tank usually require the same: to be able to perforate the armor technology of other countries. Our tanks have to be able to ditch the tank at least some NATO, and any NATO tank — grind our tank. Because often the focus in the design of the tank paying its armed, and only then — protection. From T-80 turned out somewhat differently: from him in the first place sought… speed!
WITH 1969 by 1980 year main tank of the Soviet Army was the T-64A. His speed on the highway was 45-50 kmh. If in the early 70's it was common, it was already very low in the early 80's this speed. And this despite the fact, that diesel 5TD was specially developed for this tank it was at the time quite advanced (700 hp, 2 050 Nm at just 13,5 l volume). Increase speed was only one method — to invent a completely new engine. Taking into account the average weight of this type in the tank 40 тонн, unprecedented engine had to be very powerful preceding decent size.
Also in 1957 year at the Kirov factory built prototype "object 278" — the car with a gas turbine engine GTD-1 engine 1 000 HP. But the design was crude, why the project has remained a project.
For a long time prior to the design of T-80 (at that time — "Object 219") Russian designers came up with the idea to put just indescribable in a tank engine from the helicopter. Not, so what: here and good power, and dependability ... That did tank. This was a modification of 64T with T-3 T-TBG (700 hp) But that's the magic of technology has fallen short of expectations: it is very strong shaking from the helicopter engine vibrations, I ate a lot of fuel, and space for the crew actually does not remain at all. In addition, it became clear, because of the growth rate to almost 60 kmh (and it was a very good indicator), the tank will have to completely remodel: not controlled by transmission and undercarriage. Willy-nilly (potochnee, joint decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers) designers had to sit down and design a fundamentally new tank. but always — with a gas turbine engine.
Development and testing of new tanks was delayed for seven years, and he was willing only to 1976 year. Release of the first tank of gas turbine in the world settled on the same Kirov Plant.
And so it happened, the tank has become faster, though arms, and a part of the armor of T-80 all the inherited from T-64A.
all the contrary
What is currently seeking to virtually all automakers? In addition to profit, naturally the same? Yes, they all want to make the car, inside which seem longer, than outside. The tank manufacturer such an idea was not.
Outside the tank and get more earnest: seven meters (to the body, without guns) and 3,5 — across. Inside things are different.
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The most vivid impression of the T-80 — it is impossible to turn around in it. How to fight here — I do not understand. #testdrayv # tank # voennayatehnika
Prior to that, than to climb into place mehvoda (by the way, from the tower I got there and was unable to climb), we'll see, why everything is so offensive.
Firstly, gas turbine engine was quite cumbersome thing. Two independent turbocharger and power turbine increasing its size and occupy a lot of space. Well, and in addition — fuel consumption. He's just a great — 150 liters per hour. This means, that are needed to carry a large fuel in store. And the T-80 is hidden as much as 13 tanks! Potochnee, hidden eight — they are standing inside. And five more — on the shelves over the tracks. And these 5 tanks eats a lot of interior space. It is understandable: their volume — 1 140 l..
by the way, GTD can work and jet fuel TC-1 and TC-2, and Local, and even on gasoline (true, low-octane).
In general, the tank assembly for traditional. The housing has three zones. In front is the separation of management from the place of the driver, fighting compartment with the commander and gunner seats occupies the middle part, and taken to the rear of the engine-transmission compartment. note: then the crew only three people, instead of four, as was the T-62, whose test drive, we recently published. To Delhi and the fourth as the uptake there for three? Here everything is simple: T-80 has lost the need to charge. The tank is worth 125-mm smoothbore gun with a gun 2A46-1 charging. Last went from tank T-64BV. If necessary, the gun can be loaded manually, despite the fact that the turn will be a problem with the projectile in the tower: spacey from lack of charging has not become.
In the tower are sitting two people: commander and gunner. By itself, in the battle of the tank head is better not to poke, because their places are equipped with periscopes, and the place of the gunner — More and sight TPD-2-49 stereoscopic optical rangefinder.
Besides commander can shoot himself. To this end, it has a 12.7-mm machine gun NSVT "Utes". truth, for this he will have to be put out of its own hatch.
Prior to that, than to try to get to the place mehvoda, a look from the outside tank.
Iron, log and dust
And the first, what we see — strange rubber pads on the tracks. Why such a tank outfit Natasha on the first ball? Obviously not for beauty. In fact, this kit is perfect rubber and the rubber is not quite underweight. it — protivokumulyativnymi shields. And they are made of reinforced rubber with armor plates. This thing just works: kumulyatyvnыy shell, floating in the tank, undermining of the shield, whereupon the bead and to armor the box main charge already lacks. And in these shields have slots, which, both in the running, you can just get on the armor. Finally, that's just fine.
Now look back at the tank. To feed tank attached ordinary log, painted in cheerful army green color. Why the tank is log? Though any educated person knows, it is not a piece of wood, and a special "equipment for self". At the same equipment includes a cable (and not just cable, and a king-throughs) and a set of fixtures. If the tank gets stuck, the beam is attached to the tracks, whereupon it theoretically may get out of the mud.
More attention attracts unknown type pipe, standing horizontally on the stern. it — set of underwater tank driving equipment (OPVT). Yes, This tank can go to a depth of 5 m, although the military for some reason it is called the ford. For this purpose it is necessary to establish a set of, which by and large is necessary only for air intake. And the air is — it is a matter of life and death.
The Yankees have a tank — M1 Abrams. Peace-loving soldiers with his help spread democracy across the whole world. for example, in the Gulf. Basically he's waged war with the Iraqi T-55 and T-72, with the latest — with difficulties. So here, too, this tank gas turbine engine. And in the desert, he proved to be a bad: dust and sand, entering the turbine, killed the engine is very, very fast. In the meantime, GTE was still alive, the US military had to constantly clean the sand paper air filters. As a result, the test did not pass the desert Abrams.
But the T-80 intake system and air filtration is made very differently. Firstly, It is worth to block the air inertia type (not filter, as the Abrams). And only after the air passes through air filters nozzle high pressure turbine. Secondly, dust is sucked two fans. There is one more precaution in case, if dust or sand still get into the motor. Potochnee, две — dust blowing system and a vibratory cleaning. The first blows the dust from the interblade channels of the impeller compressor, a second body clears and turbine nozzle vanes in the case, if the dust in the combustion chamber is already melted. And she can do it — the temperature here rises far 1 000 WITH.
And where is the brake?
Well, and now the fun: as this tank ride? A ride on it easier, you get the levers. I'm just not able to crawl from under the Baska breech gun on the driver's seat. rescued flap. Narrow, close, very uncomfortable, but at least some truth ..., it is necessary to open the first, but it can be done only from the inside. Because more compact man had to climb in and turn the handle, similar to the handle of the old meat grinder. Luke rises above, then the axle is rotated in the direction. It can not reject.
The driver's seat looks clumsy. But we're in the tank, there are no trifles ... Therefore, there is the insertion seat, mehvoda that cover the bottom of the likely gamma radiation when traveling on an infected site. by the way, the same function is carried in for itself and the fuel tanks, mounted within the housing.
so, here it is — driver's seat. Overview here better, than T-62, yes and sit right in the center, instead of the left, but ... But still almost can not see anything. of the facilities — in the face of the fan. Well, even thank you for it.
Let's try to connect theory with practice. And to begin with, that despite the fact that the three pedals, it's not quite the usual grip us, harassment and gas. Here everything is complicated.
Classical clutch is not at all. Onboard planetary gearboxes generally two, and the gear stick — one. And yet when overclocking these 42 tons of felled so, that pushes the chair, especially in the lower gears.
soft pedal — This pedal PCA (adjustable nozzle). It alters the free turbine speed due to the configuration of the angle of turning vanes in a flow of the motor before its impeller. The free turbine is connected via a reduction gear box with. We use this pedal and the clutch, To enable the transmission of, and with her own means of slowing down the engine. Before you engage a gear (two boxes, one on each board, managed by the same "speed selector lever", Navigate through the comb), Pedal need to survive. PCA blades stand up to such an angle, wherein the turbine enters the zero power mode. by the way, here is the lack of a rigid mechanical connection with the engine transmission and enables the tank to die, even if to rest it on the wall.
So, release the pedal and wonder. Tank goes not immediately, but with a slight delay. Why it arises — I certainly can not say. But later ...
Dispersal of the tank very fast! And compared to diesel — and not that of a noisy. If you listen to the tank, standing behind him — Yes, This rumbling dump on Lake Peipsi. On the other hand, and even inside the turbine howls the loudest audible.
And one more feature — This is an easy turn of the controls. They hydraulic servo, and pull them from all Get stupid not necessary. But to understand, how they work, just necessarily.
On the part of the method it seems difficult. If the lever pull is not very, the transmission of this board just shuts down. pull further — turning radius is reduced due to a slipping clutch switching. And if that's not a lot, pull more. Now board box knocks down a gear. And all this happens very smoothly. So, not knowing, what is happening with the mechanisms, their work do not notice. clear, that in place of the tank can be deployed only in first gear. Well, or back. by the way, all four forward gears, rear — одна.
Так же, as the T-62, T-80 cheers very smooth running. It is worth a similar individual torsion suspension with hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers oboestoronnego action. And in addition — caterpillars with rubber running track and rubber-metal joints. They not only provide comfort a sudden from the tank, but also not very noisy.
fly in the ointment
We did not talk about some stuff, which makes the T-80 even steeper. For example, about it, that exhaust his allotted as possible further from the engine-transmission compartment, to protect the mechanics from homing missiles (it flies in the heat). What set the tank underwater driving equipment is arranged in such a way, To further protect itself all the same engine. Silent about, that the T-80 has a system of protection against weapons of mass destruction and even entrenching system, by means of which the tank itself may rapidly dig. He sang the praises of many, especially now, when praising the domestic equipment was very stylish. Let's talk about the shortcomings.
A drawback it is essentially one — GTD-1250 the same engine. He has at least four of the last weaknesses.
In 1-x, it can not be repaired in the field criteria. And not in the field is usually too — easier to change. It is too complicated.
In-2-x, his life still cool limited. He spends as much air (to 4 kg / s), that as it is not cleared, Dust inside still gets. Turbine and wear pretty quickly. Priplyusuem here first disadvantage and hurt vzdohnom. truth, the turbine can be replaced separately.
В-третьих, this motor Straseni expensive to produce. For its price, you can buy a dozen diesels.
AND, eventually, last thing. Giant fuel consumption greatly reduces power reserve. At the T-80 on the highway it is about 350 km, and at the same T-64A it can reach 700 km. truth, the maximum speed T-64 highway near 55 kmh, and the T-80 on the passport 70, but in fact — all 100.
All this has led to, that the T-80 and was the only massive tank with GTE. Later T-90 — дизельный (despite the fact that it is just a modernization of T-72B, tank with an almost forty-year history), "Arma", glohnuschaya parade, fun too diesel engine and unholy purchase price (call numbers 300 to 500 миллионов рублей). So that, can, and T-80 is not so bad.
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