The study of history through the prism of the Soviet automobile designers biographies, factory directors and ministers always promises many discoveries, because it is in the capitalist countries every model in varying degrees of Noah was an attempt to automotive companies respond to audience questions. And we have ... We have very often the birth of the car was the result of the prevailing contingencies. It depended including on, Does one or another engineer on a particular position of certain plant. Related to this, and a lot of embarrassment, let us say, GAZ-21 "Volga" was born thanks to Andrew Lipgart, but not so, he worked on a particular post certain plant, а потому, that he had not worked there, wherein, unwittingly ...
|A.A. Lipgart and his beloved car victory.|
Andrei Alexandrovich Liphart career began in the 20s in the metropolitan Engine Institute US. But when in Nizhny Novgorod have started the construction of a giant plant, designed to produce 100 thousand cars per year, Lipgart himself asked to, boldly abandoning metropolitan residence. With 1933 year - he was the chief designer of GAZ, Specifically with this time biography Andrei Alexandrovich starts to grow legends. Lipgart founded powerful design school, gaining only people with an eye on their business property. In the most severe Stalinist times Lipgart invited to engineering positions people with "suspicious" of social origin, "Questionable" political views, even foreigners, which easily assign tasks, considered strategically necessary for the defense of the country. The events of late 30's did not escape the factory party — numb his managers were jailed or received death sentences, but staff Design and Experimental Department KEO all "clean" passed. For the excellent work of the designers of GAZ, it seemed, forgive all. engineers, bred Lipgart, in to play an important role in the fate of Russian car factories, and some will be the main designers in other enterprises or industry leaders.
We will not dwell on the well milestones Liphart career path - the main "stop" is widely known - and M-1, prince "Emka" and a completely new engine for the Russian engine GAZ-11 (of course, not designed without regard to their Western counterparts), and military jeeps GAZ-64 and GAZ-67 does, not including body type, Do not repeat the American Willys, and racing GL-1, where test voucher Arkadiy Nikolayev set a nationwide record speed 161 km / h, and, naturally, "Victory" ... And how useful he did for "Military Organization" — thanks largely to these developments Lipgart and his subordinates 5 once received the Stalin Prize ...
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In short, Thunder erupted quite unexpectedly: in December 1951 Liphart years removed from the post of head designer of GAZ and sent to work in Miass to "lagging" UralZIS- plant, a war built the primitive trucks ZIS-5 with a wood cabin. This reshuffle was accompanied by scandal. GAZ has received an order to learn amphibious military mission - "small car natatorial" MAV. Of us in bitter sent documentation on the car with the index 011 in units of outdated and sentenced for an early withdrawal from the production of GAZ-67B. It was ready to develop.
|US-011, aka GAS-011|
But in the voucher Gorky plant preparing another project - such as the parameters, and destination car GAZ-46 in units of prospective GAZ-69. Above it still had to work, but the game is worth the candle. Customer in uniform, even for a year or two later, but received more than a modern car, and the gas was spared from having to maintain unnecessary production of GAZ-67 units and expend energy on the development of pre-outdated design.
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With this approach, he disagreed Witold Albertovich Kreschuk, design project leader, responsible for the formulation of GAZ-011 gazovskih assembly on stream. He wrote a number of letters - in Minavtoprom, The Council of Ministers and to the Kremlin to Stalin, and because of the charges brought against Kreschukom cut short such a brilliant career Gorky Liphart. This story clearly appreciate all the witnesses: Kreschuk among designers of GAZ was the "person non grata", for many years he was considered "very bad man". Kreschuka "in the tail and mane," not just "dressing", perhaps, most competent historian cars in our country Evgeny Ignatievich Prochko, Prof. designer off-road vehicles. Prochko steel with arguments in the hands of accused Kreschuka in the low competence and engineering incompetence, a fortiori, that the proposed Kreschukom return GAS-011 and the GAZ-46 MAV his project amphibious model GAZ-48 turned out to be extremely bad, that fully confirmed the test prototype of this machine.
|GAS-011 and the GAZ-46|
Kreschuka aggressively abused in their diaries MZMA chief designer Alexander Fedorovich Andronov. He had a severe reason. When MZMA mastered ground power unit APA-7, I do the same accusation to the governing authority from the 1st of the Constructors WGC against Andronov and head engineer VN plant. Polyakova, the future minister of the automotive industry of the USSR. Repression against Polyakov and Andronov not followed, but they had spent pretty nerve, defending his innocence.
The flip side.
But every coin has a flip side. Let us try to sober assessment, the consequences for the Russian automotive industry led Kreschuka letter and the subsequent resignation of the then Liphart. Is everything exactly? Well, во-первых, fortunately, not happen very terrible: Lipgart from the post of chief designer of GAZ was not in a camp in Kolyma, but merely a strong demotion drove to another car factory. Employee Liphart LV. Kostkin, also removed from office, by the same "signal" over the, He was arrested, and sent to MAZ, to Minsk. After working for several years on URALAZ, Lipgart returned to Moscow, where for many years he held executive positions in the US, He engaged in design activities, He oversaw the work at several plants, She participated in meetings of the Board of the Ministry of auto industry of the USSR, solving, which machines needed, and which are not. To consider whether such a development catastrophe events? I think, that there is!
We could stay without the "Volga"
What are the consequences of the resignation of Andrei Alexandrovich turned for GAZ? Last machine, constructed at Lipgart - GAZ-69 — without him went into the total production, Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant was transferred to and lived a happy life on the line, playing a prominent role in the country's history and becoming the base for the first generation of "loaf" UAZ-450.
And most importantly, already without Liphart at full power deployed work on a car of new generation M-21. 1-s layout drawings and models of the future successor to the "Victory" were still at it. They reminded reduced in size and ZIM COMMERCIAL foreign cars early 50. New GAZ chief designer Nikolai Borisov, before - the chief designer MZMA, ceded the position AF. Andronov, It provided an opportunity for the leading designers of the M-21, Vladimir Solovyov and Alexander Mikhailovich Nevzorov, as well as a leading artist-designer of the exterior shape of the body Lev Mikhailovich Eremeev make such a car, which they deem necessary. The result of their efforts - familiar to all of us "Volga" GAZ-21.
|Trying to make the M-21, as a reduction of ZIM|
Now you have such a machine, Tarry Lipgart main designer GAZ? E.I. Prochko said, that he personally saw and heard, like sowing after working in the service "Volga", Lipgart companions began to speak, what is "ugly", "Illiterate engineered" machine. he recalled, how beautiful it was the "Victory" and explained, a "monster", "Volga" did on gas without him.
In 1955, at the College of Minavtoproma, which discussed engine "Moskvich-406", Lipgart said irritably, that "it fooled, designed "Volga" ". We have not got the motivation to justify Liphart, understand and find the documents it claims to "Volga" design, but the picture is normal. If not the letter Kreschuka Liphart and removal from office of the head designer of GAZ, the famous "Volga" GAZ-21 family would not be in the nature, at least, perfectly familiar to us in the form of.
Generally, it is possible in the words of Andrew A., in its judgments of "Volga" was an insult, because it was a high quality designer and, of course, upset by the move to Miass. But also on the new place, he confirmed his high qualifications. Let us remember the movie "Gentlemen of Fortune", and in it - cement, sitting in a tank whose main characters escapes from the camp. This "UralZIS- 355M", which appeared just because Lipgart. Immediately after the war the leading car manufacturers have released new trucks ZIS-150 and GAZ-51, and "UralZIS-" continued to manufacture old ZIS-5, wherein in a simplified embodiment wartime with wood cabin.
|The post-war production of ZIS-5 "UralZIS-"|
In 1949 , the plant designers have built and handed over to the test in us a new truck standards. When Lipgart came from Gorky in Miass, he was shown drawings of cars. Quickly examining their, Lipgart immediately went to look "alive" car, measurements of its tape and on the same day "sketched" rough sketch of the modified layout, while allowing the same size increment capacity of the airborne platform. Then Andrey carefully explained Ural colleagues, how to rework the engine and chassis. Using the remaining bonds at GAZ, He headed for the transmission in Miass snap on cockpit GAZ-51 with wood doors, which in Gorky it was just about to change the new all-steel cab GAZ-51A. Finally, Lipgart "struck" at the Ministry fundamentally the decision to replace the ZIS-5, the new machine "UralZIS- 355M". At the time since 1958 th and 1965 th this truck has become the main model of the Ural factory: once a year were produced by 22 to 29 thousands of such machines.
Yes, "Ural-355M", did not shine novelty design. But it turned out great "workhorse" for the provincial Russia, Siberia, virgin lands of Northern Kazakhstan. The machine features reliable, long-term engine, Hurler low oil and gasoline properties, but it is not enough to consume so much gasoline, насколько это возможно. She had simply "unkillable" chassis, and "extracted" Lipgart cabin turned out to equip the warmest among the then Russian truck heater, Radovan chauffeur in fierce frost. Finally, the "Ural-355M" came profitable ratio of own weight and payload capacity. Creating "unaesthetic", but cheap, reliable and user-friendly machine was broken because, that "UralAZ" redeveloped to three-axle trucks military mission.
So, "Vile accusation" VA. Kreschuka and resignation AA. Liphart gave the country two successful and popular vehicle - passenger car and truck. Kreschuk himself was banished from the gas at the head office of the Lviv designer bicycle factory. Soon it turned moped release, and after a few years there and is popular and "Verkhovyna". In one of our future materials, we will tell, had to do with whether the dangerous designer Kreschuk and whether he was really weak and bestalantnym engineer.