We already wrote about, as the German engineers, who worked in KB of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany after the war, We develop diesels for "Victory" and GAZ-51 and machines for "Moskvich-400". Now we continue the story of units and aggregates, which could lead to an extraordinary technical level of domestic cars, and on the, why it did not happen or it happened very late.
In the second half of the twentieth century in the gear main bridges of domestic cars have become the norm hypoid main transmission. Their peculiarity is that, that the gear teeth - and driven, and leading — not cut on the cone, and on the surface, which is called "hyperboloid", hence the name of my own - "hypoid". This gives a lot of superiority, the main one being - a smaller contact stress. Simply put, at equal dimensions hypoid pair is living longer, than conical, and less noise. Plus,, intersecting axis against overlapping (in bevel gears) give the benefit of the assembly, and so on. Of course, hypoid pair difficult to manufacture and, Unlike conical, They require special oils and very sensitive to the movement in reverse.
For the first time in the USSR hypoid final drive used on high-end limousine ZIS-110. 1-s 34 freight cars of this model of the Stalin Automobile Plant Capital put into sales in victory 1945 year. A few years later he appeared on such transfer huge car ZIM (GAZ-12) - first 155 machines such GAZ released in 1950-m. These were our developments, but the German CB designed rear axle with hypoid final match for the very malehankih Soviet car "Moskvich". Moreover, Germany was made and tested several prototypes of the same hypoid gears "Moskvich". They have set the standard in the rear axle casings from a similar German car Opel Kadett, with which assembly the flow went from a pair of bevel.
|Hypoid rear axle "Moskvich" on the board in a German laboratory.|
Compared with the conventional "conical" bridge, there were new leads and driven gears of the main pair and the differential case. Remained without configuration axle housing, semiaxis, differential gear, bearings and other parts. the pinion axis is reduced by 30 mm relative to the driven axis - it is just one of a pair of hypoid superiority. Bridge installed on a special test stand, and found, he lives at least for repeated loads 30% longer conical. On vehicles Kadett hypoid rear axles tested in various road conditions. It turned, The pair is operating normally under at least some load, even on the roads. In this case the noise level measurements showed, it significantly decreased.
|German bridge "Moskvich".|
Seasoned "glands" and drawings went to the Russian Union. To master such a transfer of the rear axle was completely real. Even if machines, necessary to cut the teeth of gears with hypoid gearing, on MZMA was not, make them to be on GAZ or ZISe, which are already supplied many devices to "Muscovites", However, these plants and their problems enough. Hypoid oil also been produced in the USSR for the ZIS-110 and Winter, but like everything in the Land of the Soviets were in short supply last. Still, this new product was delayed for many years.
In 1957 GAZ year without the help of others to introduce a pair of hypoid on "Volga" M-21, and the chassis KB MZMA, headed by designer KI. Faibisovich, to seriously address the topic of hypoid gears until the end of the 50's, after the change of the base, German model "Moskvich", or more simply, Opel Kadett car on its own design, which the, generally, They are also not designed without regard to their Western counterparts.
|German rear axle car.|
In 1959 year on the machines of the industrial pilot garage MZMA already run in the new hypoid axles, and to 1961 year hypoid gearbox entered on all descending from the assembly flow of cars. The basic model was then "Moskvich-407". He has driven gear axis was shifted down to 32 mm, right of 11 mm. Number of teeth was 41 and 9, gear ratio - 4,55: characteristics of serial hypoid gear "Moskvich" markedly different from the German prototype. This is not surprising - the engine and gearbox have been very different, than the "Moskvich" sample 40-ies.
Another principle for driving transmission - couple, applied to the control gear box. At the Opel Kadett and the first "Moskvich" it consisted of a globoid worm and sector of a circle with three teeth. German engineers found, that the magnitude of the gaps in the existing control mechanism is not perfect, does not provide a smooth operation and a similar effort on the steering wheel at different positions, "donut". By optimizing the amount of clearance between the teeth of the worm and sector, KB SMAD constructors have proposed upgraded control gear for "Muscovite": He worked more smoothly, He demanded from the driver less effort at any steering angle, at the same time without problems pass the test on the stand on the strength and durability. By car experienced gearbox new mileage 40 thousands of kilometers. Whether this development is useful when designing new control departments "Muscovite" patterns or any other Soviet cars, we do not know.
|German steering "Moskvich" and its details.|
On the application of all-wheel drive on the "Moskvich" in the 40s, naturally the same, out of the question. And yet a way to increase throughput and improve the durability of the car on a slippery road in the assets of the German engineers had. Even during the war on some military vehicles used self-locking differentials interwheel. Such a device has already been released, Timken - brand still exists today. In the German Commercial Bank were founded upon the development of the manufacturer and adapted it to the gearbox main gear "Moskvich".
|German limited-slip differential.|
Compared with the serial gear, It took only make new housing and the differential side gears and satellites. And a pair of tapered rear axle housing Opel Kadett were serial. differential gears received a special engagement profile, configured patterned node Timken. special adaptation was made to check the profile of engagement and the value of self-locking. measurement results, made with the help of, showed the correctness of the choice of the angles, shape and number of teeth ratio. Road tests mileage 7 thousands of kilometers confirmed the efficiency and reliability of assembly.
|German stand for testing differential lock.|
From industrial reports MZMA known, that even in 1952 year subcompact overpriced patency was included in the promising plans. But the full drive it still has not walked. Make better off-road vehicle climbing ability OGC designers tried by forced administration interwheel differential lock or a limited slip. In 1954 passes the test car, which remained very not a lot of information. It was a pickup truck with a body from the ground power unit APA-7, converted into a board machine. It set bus developed grouser type "herringbone" and the rear axle with self-locking differential gear.
|Pick inflated patency "Muscovite" 1954 year.|
I lay there in the base of the pickup gear German engineering, until set. Also found no reports on his trial (but this does not mean, that they did not exist). Known, that in the same year, NS. Khrushchev summoned to a meeting of head designer MZMA Alexander Fedorovich Andronov and ultimaticheskoy form required for " 10 days "to create a four-wheel drive off-road vehicle. Prototyping benchmark in this period was built with the introduction of a prospective model body "Moskvich-402-425", nodes GAZ-M73 and GAZ-69 cars Gorky. Since this project began, embodied in a production car "Moskvich-410". Work on the differential lock is not continued, and was, as we know, "Muscovite-410" is equipped with free differentials.
The last time we talked about the German diesel engines for trucks ZIS-150 and, as an option, for ZIS-5. But the Germans also worked on the new petrol engines. The harsh Russian climate seemed tempting to abandon water jacket, require constant drain water during the winter parking - available antifreeze was not there. Therefore German motors ZIS-150 decided to perform the cooling air.
1-the first version of the engine made a straight-six. To simplify the development of the production of its unified with the ZIS-120 motor (so it was called serial motor for ZIS-150), as far as can be. It remained unchanged all the connecting rod and piston group: pistons, piston rings, fingers, rods, as well as indigenous and connecting rod bearings. From everyday ZIS-120 left hinged units: Stark, generator, oil filter, distributor and carburetor. In place of the timing structure nizhneklapannym Germans suggested verhneklapanny. In this combustion chamber made hemispherical and valves installed V-shaped. But, in spite of such differences, intake and exhaust valves, plates and valve springs get to keep the serial!
|The six-cylinder engine is a sectional.|
The engine received a long, What ZIS-120: with air cooling distance between the cylinders had to be increased and the cooling ribs provide structure. But the absence of the radiator allows you to put an elongated engine under the hood of a standard ZIS-150. Cylinders were not enclosed in a block, and cast separately from iron - one considers its head of duralumin alloy. Crankshaft Carter was also a metal, head, the sleeve itself massed housing between an anchor bolts - to increase the rigidity design.
|German motor for ZIS-150.|
Blowing cylinder was forced organized, by a fan, the air of which was fed to the edges of the heads and shells on a special casing. The dimensions and profiles of the necks of the crankshaft and camshaft cam profile left by the same, that ZIS-120, but both are different from the standard shaft length increased. Germans painstakingly calculated the mass of the motor, that it was not a difficult standard. By dynamic and economic indicators novelty it was successful because of the best shape of the combustion chamber and the upper valve arrangement.
|German motor for ZIS-150.|
In this German designers did not stop. The following air-cooled version of the engine for truck ZIS has made eight V-shaped. The calculated capacity was of His 120-130 HP. Again managed to leave from the ZIS-120 liners, rods, pistons, piston rings and piston pins, the spring plates and valve, parts of the oil filter, cam profiles and fungi pushers.
|German V-shaped "eight" in sectional.|
Based on the size of the engine compartment ZIS-150, We tried to make the engine compact in width. Because the collapse of the cylinders is not selected 90 degrees, but only 75.
As is the case with in-line engine, each cast iron liners and every duralumin head with cooling fins made separately. Head and sleeve again pulled off the metal casing bolts. timing, of course, again chose the overhead, a combustion chamber — hemispherical. But on each side of the valves installed in series. On each row has its own carburetor and its inlet and outlet pipes. They are installed on the outside, and candles - inside the cylinders. The distributor of ignition and fuel pump actuator from the cam gears and the rear end of the camshaft. Air was circulated between the rows of cylinders under the action of the fan. The volume of the oil pan increment, placed in the cylinder collapse oil radiator coil type.
|"Half" German V-shaped "Eight".|
Verhneklapanny V-type eight-cylinder engines appeared on the Russian truck only in the early 60's, but they already had the usual liquid cooling.